Notes to Contributors

The Editors cordially invite contributions which may be articles, case notes, or book reviews.

Editorial Addresses:
Dr Philip Marsden
Director, The Competition Law Forum
British Institute of International and Comparative Law
17 Russell Square, London WC1B 5JP, UK


Simon Bishop
Partner, RBB Economics
Rond Point Schuman 6, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium

1. Contributions should conform to the ECJ style guidelines shown below.

2. Contributions should be word-processed, double-spaced. Contributions must be provided in electronic form, either by email or by post on a clean, new 3.5 inch disk to the address above. The only exception to electronic submission is where this would be impracticable or cause undue hardship. Contributions may be provided in Word, WordPerfect or rich text format. Please virus check your disk before submitting it.

3. One hardcopy, double-spaced and printed on A4/letter paper (using one side of the page only), may accompany the electronic version. A hardcopy should be supplied in addition to the electronic version wherever a contribution contains graphs, tables or any other significant formatting.

4. In the case of articles, an abstract of not more than 150 words should be submitted with the contribution. This will appear on this website if the article is published.

5. Contributions should usually be no longer than 8-10,000 words (for articles), 6,000 words (for shorter articles and reviews), 4,000 words (for notes) and 2,000 words (for book reviews). These figures exclude footnotes, which as a guide should not cover more than one-third of the printed page.

6. Contributors' autobiographical details should appear with an * as the first footnote of each contribution, and include the name, position and institutional affiliation for each author.

7. ECJ will not usually consider for publication contributions that have been submitted or accepted elsewhere for publication. The Editors and Publisher do not accept any responsibility for loss or damage to the disks or hardcopies supplied. Regretfully, disks and hardcopies cannot be returned.

8. It is the contributor's responsibility to ensure that all references and citations are correct, and that the contribution does not contain any material that infringes copyright or is defamatory, obscene or otherwise unlawful or litigious.

9. Contributors of articles will receive a free copy of the journal issue and a pdf of their article. All contributors may purchase additional copies of the issue directly from Hart Publishing at a 33% discount. A reviewed book will become the property of the reviewer once the review is published.

10. As a condition of publication, contributors grant licences to publish to ECJ and the Publisher for the purpose of administering rights and permissions in all contributions. These licences include the licence to publish in hardcopy, as well as electronically, by the ECJ, the Publisher, or by any assignee, for non-profitable and/or profitable purposes. Copyright nevertheless remains the property of the contributor.

Style Guide

I. General Information:

1. Although ECJ is published in the UK, it is an inclusive journal that invites international contributions. Because some matters such as vocabulary, spelling and punctuation vary to some extent from one English speaking country to another, in the interests of consistency, the journal will use UK English throughout (see Stylistic Conventions, section II).

2. When an article is accepted for publication, authors will be expected to ensure that it complies with the guidelines in this document to the greatest extent possible. ECJ conventions for citations, quotations and other stylistic matters are outlined in sections II and III. The Editors strongly encourage contributors to consult the journal style guidelines when revising accepted articles so as to avoid significant changes to the article at proofs stage. A sample paper and a copy of the guidelines are available on request from the Publisher.

3. The Editors reserve the right of final decision on matters of style, grammar, punctuation, citation etc that are not dealt with explicitly in this document.

4. All articles should be accompanied by an abstract of approximately 150 words summarising its central theme(s). The abstract should be followed by a maximum of ten keywords to assist indexers in cross-referencing the article.

5. All articles published in ECJ are copyrighted by the journal and the author. A fuller statement of the copyright agreement to which authors must agree, is available on request from the Publisher. Papers should be accompanied by a statement that they have not already been published and are not being considered for publication elsewhere and that, if accepted for publication in the journal, they will not be submitted for publication elsewhere without the agreement of Hart Publishing. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce in their articles any material enjoying copyright protection. The letter granting such permission should be attached to the manuscript.

II. Stylistic Conventions:

1. Headings should be of the following form:

1. Level Two
(a) Level Three

2. Quotations should be clearly indicated by double quotation marks, with single quotation marks used for quotes within quotes. Where a quotation is more than 40 words long, it should be indented as a separate paragraph, with a line space above and below. Formatting and spelling of quotations should remain exactly as in the original.

3. Numerical form should be used for numbers both in text and footnotes, and "%" symbol used rather than "per cent" or "percent".

4. 'US' should be used when referring to the United States instead of 'U.S.', 'U.S.A', or 'USA' and 'UK' when referring to the United Kingdom instead of 'U.K.' or any other form.

5. Citations must always be given in any submission, whether an article, a note or a book review. Citations in articles and notes should appear in the footnotes. Citations in book reviews should be kept to a minimum and appear in the text of the review. For subsequent citations in articles and notes, a cross-reference may be used in the following form: "supra n 3, 35", except that "Ibid" should be used when the immediately preceding citation is repeated (eg "Ibid, 14"). Please refer to the Annex for information about how to write citations in footnotes.

6. Full points should not be used for abbreviations or acronyms.

7. Cross-references to the text should if possible identify the place not by page number (which may alter more than once during printing) but by the relevant section of the article or nearest footnote number, eg: "See infra, section D", "See supra n 9 and accompanying text" and "See supra text to nn 3-5." When referring to your article use 'article' instead of 'paper' and 'Section A' instead of 'Part 1'.

8. Where reference is made to part of a cited source, first and last page numbers should be given, eg Re Sevenoaks Stationers (Retail) Ltd [1991] Ch 164, 183-85 (not "183 ff" or "183 et seq").

9. Where frequent reference to one or more citations (particularly lengthy ones) is necessary, it may be convenient for the first footnote to specify an abbreviation or list of abbreviations to be used subsequently.

10. As well as direct citations, reference may be made to sources in the following ways:

  • For sources which are not primary authority for the proposition cited: "See".
  • For examples of sources supporting a particular proposition: "See, eg" or less specifically, "See generally".
  • For references to sources that do not support the proposition made in the text: "Cf"

11. Tables and figures. Authors may present tables and figures, which are essential to an understanding of the text. References in the text to tables and figures should always be by number (eg Table 1, Fig. 3). Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively and presented on separate pages with clear, concise titles. They should be grouped in sequence at the end of the text, not incorporated into the text, and contained in separate electronic documents. Authors should indicate clearly the location of figures and tables in the text.

12. All references, citations and quotations should be verified before submission. The accuracy of the contribution and of the proof is the author's responsibility.

III. Citations

Citations should be given in the following forms:

(a) Books

First and Second Initial and Surname, Title of the book italicized, each word in the title has an initial capital letter (Place of publication, Publisher, xth edn, Year). Examples:

• C Quigley and AH Collins, EC State Aid Law and Policy (Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2002), 150-57.

• V Korah, An Introductory Guide to EC Competition Law in Practice (Oxford, Hart Publishing, 7th edn, 2001).

Where the publisher is either the Oxford or Cambridge University Press, reference to place of publication may be omitted. Thereafter a suitably abbreviated form may be used, eg: Korah, supra n 15, 203-7.

(b) Chapters in Books

G Monti, "New Directions in EC Competition Law", in T Tridimas (ed), European Union Law for the Twenty-First Century, vol 2 (Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2004), 177, 179.

(c) Journal Articles

The first citation to journal articles should give the name of the journal in full: P Marsden, "Competition Law in an Enlarged Europe" (2005) 1 European Competition Journal 21, 25.

Thereafter, an abbreviated form may be used, eg Marsden, supra n 10, 22-24. Journal titles should be given in full.

(d) Statutes • In the text: section 32 of the UK Competition Act 1998.

• In footnotes: Enterprise Act 1998, s 32.

(e) Statutory Instruments

Full title should be given in the text the first time the Instrument is referred to, with an accompanying footnote of the following form: SI 1999/1234.

(f) EU Directives

Title (abbreviated where appropriate) should be given in the text, with an accompanying footnote of the following form: Directive 23/995 EC [1998] OJ L35/173. Subsequent citations may omit the reference to the OJ.

(g) Cases

Case C-393/92 Almelo and others [1994] ECR I1477.

Where possible, case citations should be given of the official series of Law Reports (eg AC, Ch or QB or, failing that, WLR or All ER, in that order).

Where a neutral citation is available for a judgement, this should be given in accordance with the Practice Direction on Form of Judgements, Paragraph Numbering and Neutral Citation ([2001] 1 WLR 194), eg Secretary of State for Trade & Industry v Smith [2001] EWCA Civ 4, [7][8]. Where a decision for which a neutral citation is available has been reported, both the neutral citation and the citation to the Law Reports should be given, with the neutral citation first

For European cases the citation should be to the ECR or CMLR. For older cases, there should be citation of both the nominate reports and (on the first citation only) the English Reports (eg "Moses v MacFerlan (1760) 2 Burr 1005; 97 ER 676"). Where an unofficial series of reports is commonly used internationally, that citation should generally be included along with the reference (if any) in the official reports (eg "Deglman v Guaranty Trust of Canada [1954] SCR 725; [1954] 3 DLR 785"). Thereafter, a suitably abbreviated form may be used, eg:

Almelo, supra n 3, 3537.

US cases may be cited in the American manner:
Rubin v Manufacturers Hanover Trust 661 F 2d 979 (2d Cir 1981)

(h) Command Papers

The title should be italicised and cited as follows:
Report of the Company Law Amendment Committee, Cmd 2657 (1926).

Command papers are abbreviated as follows: • 18361899 C 19561986 Cmnd • 19001918 Cd 1986 to date Cm • 19191956 Cmd

(i) Law Commission and DTI Reports

Land Registration for the Twenty-First Century (Law Com No 271, TSO, 2001). Modern Company Law for a Competitive Economy: Final Report (URN 01/942 (vol 1) and 01/943 (vol 2), DTI, 2001). References may be either to page or paragraph number.

(j) Websites

The URL for electronic references is followed by "accessed on [date]":
"eg accessed on 4 January 2004"

(k) Newspaper Articles

"Bidding for the Future", Economist, 12 February 2000, 97. P Abrahams, "A Sudden Increase in Demand Has Caught Everyone by Surprise", Financial Times, 8 May 2000, 2.

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